More recently, federal legislators and the U.S. justice system have moved an increasingly large portion of the health insurance market from a private contract system to an unsealed merger between contractual, fiduciary and administrative law. As private health insurance markets develop in Europe and elsewhere, it is likely that similar efforts will be made to establish a paternalistic, but market-oriented legal system that will govern relations between insurance companies and their members. Third, companies could play a strategic game with regulators. According to Segerson and Miceli (1998), companies are making voluntary wastewater reductions to avoid the introduction of mandatory controls deemed more costly for a certain level of reduction. Wu and Babcock (1999) add the possibility for the regulator to offer a positive incentive for cooperation, such as providing technical expertise in pollution reduction. If the regulator provides such a service at a lower cost than it can provide, the company has other reasons to join a voluntary agreement. Voluntary environmental delivery is a tempting term. For many reasons, some companies seem to be doing on their own what they would have done in the past only under the threat of the law. As has already been said, one of the reasons for voluntary action may be the fear of stricter regulation. Corporate actions may be seen as experiences. After many years of actively rejecting many environmental requirements with limited success, some companies seem to be wondering if there are opportunities for entrepreneurship to be green.
While some anecdotal evidence suggests that companies have increased their profits through improved environmental performance, other anecdotes suggest that these “win-win” chances are limited [Lyon and Maxwell (1999)]. Overall, the evidence here does not support the idea that polluters will systematically reduce their wastewater without government regulations and programs to encourage this behaviour. In the CONTEXT of the EU, the term `voluntary agreement` generally refers to an agreement which is not the result of a political decision-making process exclusively within the framework of the official EU institutions (European Commission, Council of the European Union, European Parliament – i.e. the so-called Community method), but mainly the result of negotiations between organisations of legitimate social partners to reach such agreements through EU legislation. The main failure of a voluntary agreement is that they are not enshrined in EU law. Organizations should be aware of the risk of an accidental employment contract with volunteers. However, this risk can be minimized by the best practices described below: acrylamide is considered a potential health risk because of its carcinogenic potential and low exposure limits (JECFA, 2005). For this reason, in many countries, food authorities have asked food producers to take steps to limit the formation of acrylamide in their products (Amrein, Andres, Escher, Amado, 2007). In 2002, the German concept of minimisation of acrylamide was introduced by the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL). The concept was based on a voluntary agreement between the BVL, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), federal authorities and industry stakeholders. The aim of the concept of minimisation is to gradually reduce the acrylamide content of foodstuffs by avoiding training. This requires the development of reduction methods that reduce the acrylamide content of foods without altering the properties of food (Gobel-Kliemant, 2007).