In the earlier phase of the negotiations, the WCT was regarded as a protocol to the Berne Convention, which had been an update of the agreement since the 1971 Stockholm Conference.  However, as any amendment to the Berne Convention required the unanimous agreement of all parties, the WCT was conceived as an additional contract complementing the Berne Agreement.  The collapse of negotiations on the extension of the Bern Agreement in the 1980s led to a transfer of the forum to the GATT, which led to the ON-TRIPS agreement.   Thus, the nature of a World Intellectual Property Organization copyright treaty has become much narrower, as it was limited to addressing the challenges posed by digital technologies. WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT)Geneva (1996)Table of materials>TABLE>PREAMBLETHE CONTRACTING PARTIES,DESINING, develop and maintain the protection of authors` rights over their literary and artistic works as effectively and uniformly as possible,RECONNAISSANT the need to introduce new international rules and clarify the interpretation of certain existing rules in order to find appropriate solutions to new economic developments , social, cultural and technologicalLY RECOGNIZE the profound impact of the development and convergence of information and communication technologies on the creation and use of literary and artistic works, underscoring the paramount importance of copyright protection as an incentive for literary and artistic creation,RECONNAISSANT the need to maintain a balance between the rights of creators and the increased public interest , in particular education, research and access to information, as the Berne Convention points out, HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:Article 1Rearation to the Berne Convention1. This Treaty is a special agreement within the meaning of Article 20 of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works with regard to the contracting parties which are States of the Union created by this Convention. This treaty is unrelated to treaties other than the Berne Convention and does not affect the rights and obligations arising from other treaties.2.