During this period, India signed and commissioned 18 SSAs with other countries. As a general rule, benefits such as replacement, pension exportability, total benefits and withdrawal of social security benefits are available under this SSA. In accordance with the total benefit clause, the time provided by a worker in the host country must be made to verify the “properness” of the social security benefit in the country of origin and vice versa. However, payment is limited, on a pro-rata basis, to the length of service in that country. Until 2008, foreigners employed in India were not covered by the provisions of the Provident Fund (PF), as pf contributions were not mandatory when workers` wages exceeded the salary cap. On the contrary, Indian nationals working abroad were required to contribute to each country`s social security system. However, these contributions have generally been lost due to limited seniority abroad or non-compliance with the minimum waiting period for the contribution or residence. While cross-border issues have arisen in the areas of taxation, immigration and social security in recent times, social security issues are also becoming more important, as they concern the pension benefits of individuals who, across borders, venture for employment. RESOLVED to cooperate in the field of social security: where a person is not entitled to a benefit on the basis of the cumulative deadlines provided by the legislation of the contracting states and accumulated in accordance with Article 12, the effectiveness of this benefit is determined by the consonance of these deadlines and the deadlines carried out in accordance with the legislation of a third country, to which both States parties are bound by social security instruments that provide for a deviation. The competent authority of India and a province of Canada may enter into agreements on all social security issues within the provincial jurisdiction in Canada, as long as these agreements are not inconsistent with the provisions of this agreement. All of these agreements are based on the concept of shared responsibility. Responsibility-sharing agreements are reciprocal. Under each agreement, partner countries make concessions to their social security qualification rules so that those covered by the agreement have access to payments that they may not be eligible for.
The responsibility for social security is thus distributed among the countries in which a person has lived during his or her working years and where the person is able to obtain potential rights. In general, it is possible to access a pension from one country in the second country, although the paying country retains some discretion with regard to the exchange and delivery mechanisms used. In addition, under the export capacity clause, workers can benefit from social security benefits in their home country or in another country (subject to the SSA concerned) without reducing these benefits, i.e. benefits can be carried out. Australia currently has 31 bilateral international social security agreements. Under these agreements, Australia equates social security periods/stays in these countries with periods of Australian residence in order to meet minimum qualification periods for Australian pensions. In other countries, periods of Australian working life are generally counted as social security periods to meet their minimum payment periods. Typically, each country pays a partial pension to a person who has lived in both countries. While the SSA is focused on easing the cross-border complexity of social security, there are still some issues and challenges that require special attention to maximize the benefits of these bilateral agreements.