The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act requires certain interest rate swaps to be settled. For this purpose, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission registers companies called “derivatives clearing organisations”. Once the parties have decided to enter into a swap agreement at the exchange rate of interest rates, they must decide on what to base the interest rates. They bet on a “fictitious” nominal amount. “Nominal” means that the amount itself is not part of the business: it is simply used to indicate the amount on which interest is calculated. A “vanilla” swap is the most common type of interest rate swap, which means that the parties exchange a fixed interest rate for a variable interest rate (and vice versa). The fixed interest rate remains the same for the duration of the swap contract. The variable rate is usually based on a benchmark, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), and fluctuates with the benchmark. To account for credit risk, the now common post-crisis price framework is the multi-curve framework, in which forecast IBOR rates and discount factors differ.

Note that the principle of the economic price remains unchanged: the values of the legs are always identical in the introduction. See Financial Economics ยง Derivative Pricing for a broader context. Here, overnight index swap (OIS) rates are typically used to calculate discount factors, as this index is the standard inclusion in credit support schedules (CSA) to determine the interest rate on collateral for IRS contracts. Since the base tension between LIBOR rates at different maturities increased during the crisis, forecast curves are typically created for each libor grade used in variable-rate derivatives. [4] Since the loan is not affected by the swap, ABC continues to pay its lender a fixed interest payment of $50,000 (1,000,000 x 5%). XYZ Company pays its lender variable interest payments of $30,000 currently ($1,000,000 x (1% + 2%)). The company`s loans have not been altered in any way. Interest rate swaps typically involve exchanging a stream of future payments based on a fixed interest rate for another set of future payments based on a variable interest rate.

Therefore, understanding the concepts of fixed-rate versus variable-rate loans is essential to understanding interest rate swaps. Other specific types of market risks to which interest rate swaps are exposed are underlying risks โ where different IBOR tenor indices may differ โ and reset risks โ where the publication of specific IBOR tenor indices is subject to daily fluctuations. .

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